Sunday, May 04, 2008


This is going to be more of a rant than a post. I am quite sure that most of you will disagree with my position on this, but it's a pet peeve of mine which bothers me more on some occasions than it does others.

This was such an occasion. I just got back from a Dunkin Donuts around the corner from my house, and honest to god I have had it with tip cups in these service establishments. Like WTF? Why can't these businesses pay their employees without depending on my damn tip to supplement their income?

I am sorry, but if I buy a coffee and bagel for x amount of dollars plus tax, that is all I expect to pay. I don't feel like getting the fuzzy eyeball from some guy at a cash register because I decide to put my change in my pocket. And I consider myself a decent tipper (15-20% depending on the service) but there are certain jobs, such as waiting tables, where tipping is a part of the deal. You deserve a tip because you are actually giving me service. Reaching over and picking up a fucking bagel and then ringing up a cash register doesn't get you a tip. Thing is, you look in the tip cup and you see all these dollar bill stuffed to the top, and you feel like a complete jerk if you don't leave something. Not to mention everyone in the joint looking at you like you are a damn serial killer or some shit. I swear they all stop what they are doing at that exact moment when you get your change back. "Oh field, stop being so cheap, you can more than afford to give the poor people a little tip, they probably only make $7 an hour." Well maybe they should be in another line of work. They might want to consider the type of service job where people are supposed to get a tip. I don't see a tip cup at my supermarket, or the post office (not yet, but I am sure that's coming), or my cleaners..wait I take that back, my cleaner does have a tip cup. Geez!

And let's not lose focus of who this is about. It's not about the employees, it's about the damn owners of these joints who hire these people with the promise of a big fat tip cup at the register. Here is something that these owners might want to consider: pay these folks a decent wage and lose the damn tip cups. They are annoying.


Chris said...

No tip should be mandatory. Unfortunately we seem to let restaurants off the hook in regards to paying their employees a proper wage.

Kristin said...

FN: Well tell us how you really feel, LMAO.

Anonymous said...


I understand your point concerning over the counter service vs. sit down service. In addition, the cashier has to split the tips with the manager or supervisor and I find that unacceptable. You are suppose to tip the wait staff and bartender because they actually serve. I tip well too because some people seem to think that women are bad tippers and that is not necessarily true, but that's another topic.

I do not feel bad for not leaving tip in the tip jar, but employer should pay these people more money, but a recession is kicking in, so I will making coffee before I leave the house for work.

field negro said...

"No tip should be mandatory"

chris, that issoo true:) But I know you are a Philly area guy, where did you get that tude? Philly folks are notorious for being great tippers.

I know jazzy, I have got to ease up on the caffeine.

hennasplace, I learn something new everyday. I did not know that women weren't supposed to be good tippers. Now I have heard that about my cousins, but not women.

Anonymous said...

I tend to agree with you on this one. Tip cups are everywhere. I hate it when I go to pick up a pizza and I give them my debit card and they print up a reciept with a line for a tip and I'm like, WTF? I'm driving to get the pizza and taking it home myself so why should I tip you?

As an aside, my daughter works at Starbucks and they have tip cups there and she told me that the managers who get paid twice as much as everyone else and who do not do the service part of the work, get an even cut of the tips amongst the workers. So the young kids who are sweet and work the customers for tips and who make minimum wage have to give an even share of the tips to the manager. That's just WRONG!

The Christian Progressive Liberal said...

Tips are part of the deal in restaurants, not Mickey D's, Duncan Donuts, or any other type of fast food establishment.

If I go to Wendy's and eat in the place, I'm being asked to bus my own trash when I finish, so I better not look up and see the fry cook with his hands out for a tip.

I agree, if the owners paid more than minimum wage, or at least a little over the federally mandated amount, no tip cup at the register is required.

Now you got me thinking about those dang tip jars at Starbucks or Caribou Coffee houses where they don't wait on you either, and sometimes they get your order wrong.

La♥audiobooks said...

I know what you mean. Would you believe I sometimes walk away feeling guilty becaue of those looks. And these people make it a point to remember your a$$ if you come back. But I can't give into this logic either.

Also, I know a little late night place that sells a damn can of Coke for $2.00 (I'm serious). They have rude as h*ll underpaid employees who practically throw the drink and the chicken wings at you. And I should cough up another arm to say what? That my date and I are happy for the abuse while we're being ripped off due to having late night munchies?

Blinders Off said...

One would think after THIS, establishments especially Starbucks would have banned tip jars.

Hathor said...

I do think those at the counter at those franchises do make more than minimun wage and get paid much better than waiters in a restaurant.
I just ignore them, I feel like the tip jar is to make me feel bad. Do you tip the cashier in a super market, they may make less? I know I work as a cashier for less than minimun wage and never expected a tip.
In fact never heard of such a thing (tipping after picking up from a counter) until I came to Philly.

field negro said...

Hmmm, more agree than I thought. I think what we need is an anti tip jar coalition.

Tracey, at Starbucks the Managers really fo split the tips? WTF?

Anonymous said...

Field, I totally agree with you and I've been going at it in debates with friends for years now regarding this issue. My philosophy is that I don't always tip and I don't feel bad about it either. The employers who don't pay their employees enough should feel bad. *shrug*

I want to say that I'm not totally against giving tips, but they have to be earned. I occasionally tip my hairdresser or a shampoo girl for doing an excellent job. They've never required that I tip. And I tip the guy at the airport for carrying my extra heavy suitcases. I'm so ridiculous in the way that I pack. However, I, too, have a problem with tipping a person who just transports my plate from a counter a few yards away to the table where I'm dining. That's not worth a dollar or even 15 cents. However, I'd rather tip the chef who threw down on my food to make my dining experience pleasurable.

Anonymous said...


I think the stereotype of women for being cheap tippers probably stems from them not being the bread winners, men generally are the ones who pick up the check. It's a presumption that the wait person would give the check to the man at the table, but the female is paying for dinner because it may be his birthday. Some people may not even notice it, but it happens. If I am paying, I just slide the check over to me. However, I do have some women and some of my cousins (blood relations) who are just cheap. I have a cousin who I would have to be the person leaving the table because she take some or sometimes all of the tip back, and I do not consider that good business if we should ever return to that restaurant.

Anonymous said...

Hennasplace: *lol* That's funny about mentioning that women may be poor tippers. When I discuss this subject with guys (about who picks up the tab and tip), I always remind them how much we women pay when we cook at home several times of the week. So after I've been cooking a few meals, I sure will sit back and let the brother pay. : ) *lol*

When I do my homecooking, the guys need to know how much I paid in groceries, spices, running my gas stove, and other kitchen equipment. And I never ask them to tip me. I'm a southern lady who sometimes likes to entertain with food. Now, if they want to drop by the grocery store and pick up a couple of things for me, I'm happy with that too. Many times the guys had no idea what goes into making a good meal until you have them to buy the groceries and help out in the kitchen. They secretly like it.

ZACK said...

Ok. Now I'm sorry about asking you to post about things outside of politics. LOL!!!!

What's next? A combo post about down low men who don't tip? Just kidding.

I want you to feel guilty though. I am a struggling grad student and I give what I can to the tip jar. So, I hope that makes you feel contrite. Considering the fact that you probably make 6 figures a year, plus some nice ad revenue from this blog, you should tip people.

But this is America, dammit. Every man for himself.

Anonymous said...

I hear you, Field. I just tip the poor fuckers anyway.

Anonymous said...

La Misviswan--you need to stop going to that place if the service is so bad. Even if you went htere a second time, that was one time too many. Actually, at the first instance of rudeness, you should've walked out and left whatever on the counter. Now, as far as this tip jar business goes... why does anyone care how someone "looked" at them when they didn'tleave a tip. Who the heck cares if they get the fuzzy eyeball. I say, fuzzy them bad. That'll show 'em. Field, I know it's your blog, but is this what you're giving us on Sunday? (Obviously, I've answered my own question.) I know you can do better.

Anonymous said...

Dude, You have been Lawyering too long...give the poor suckers a break, and give 'em change...trying to stop the greedy owners/managers from underpaying those poor cats by boycotting the tip jar is like drinking poison and hoping your enemy dies...BTW, my daughter is an ex Bigbucks employee who is a class member in the lawsuit regarding the managers taking the employee tips...she may see 50 cents or so somewhere down the line...I understand Starbucks has changed its policy as a result.

Bur Field, please, lighten up & give 'em the change...your pocket don't need it anyhow !

Anonymous said...

This is off-topic, but via some folks who follow the wingnut blogs regularly, it would appear that one of the regular writers at National Review Online, a major bastion of propagandists for our corporate kleptocracy, is trying to dismiss the evil of the Tuskegee syphilis "study". Seems to me like they've reached a new low with this one, and they've reached pretty damn low in their past writings.

I thought the S,N! writer did a pretty good job of shooting it down, but the memes those lying bastards at NRO and similar wingnut sites inject into public discourse don't die as easily as they deserve to.

Yet another taste of what is to come, assuming Senator Obama gets the nomination. But then, the crew over here already knows this...

Anonymous said...

I used to tip 20-30% at restaurants and for pizza delivery because that's what I did when I went to college. I can't afford to "spread the wealth" anymore. I used to have a sales job that paid double what I make now. And new sales jobs don't pay much more than that.

I don't find tip jars annoying. At least I can give the employees the fuzzy eyeball without guilt because I now have to pay $7 instead of $5 for the same bowl of nachos with carne asada.

They should be grateful for those days when I can afford the luxury to do what I used to do all the time.

kid said...

Hey brother Field,

I was in my Maybach eating my Yuppie sandwich with Grey Puppon, sorry you lost this argument.Man if they deserve it , give them the money.

Constructive Feedback said...

[quote]I am sorry, but if I buy a coffee and bagel for x amount of dollars plus tax, that is all I expect to pay[/quote]

Field-Negro - my Philly Home Boy - you just made the most compelling argument AGAINST "The Living Wage" that I have ever heard.

You see I read your words and saw you express a certain amount of INHERENT VALUE in the goods that you have purchased for your own consumption. This is a reasonable position for you and all other rational people who participate in a market exchange.

The idea of a "Living Wage" promotes that concept that YOU - the Secret Dunkin Doughnuts shopper - should use your purchase of coffee and these fried, fattening cakes that are loaded with sugar as an expression of SOCIETY'S VALUE....of the WORKER'S NEED for income at a certain amount to meet the worker's monthly nugget.

It creates an ABSTRACTION between what you are forced to pay out of your pocket via government mandate and your personal valuation for the goods that you consume.

Did you bother to ask the cashier if he or she had any hungry kids to feed at home before deciding not to give them a tip?

(Didn't my friend have "Living Wages" on the list that I responded to the other day about things that are not being addressed as we focus on Rev Wright? )

Anonymous said...

Field... why Dunkin Ds?? There are soo many good locally owned cafes/coffee shops.. my fave in Center City, Brew HaHa or Almaz.... locally owned cycles the money through the community more.. they pay better, and at Almaz, GREAT Ethiopian coffee served by the owner and no tip jar!

Anonymous said...

Sometimes I tip, sometimes I don't. When I pay $3.80 for a latte macchiato [kicking myself for doing it, but WANTING it sooo badly] I might drop in the 20 cents...or I might use my debit card so I have no 'change' to give.

Admiral Komack said...

I agree with Chris.

No tip should be mandatory.

If you give good service, I will give you a tip.

If you don't give good service, don't expect a tip from me.

True story:

My friend and I go to lunch.
During the meal I felt that the waitperson was just going through the motions with us, and was more attentive to other diners.
I didn't like it but I was cool.
We pay for our meals, and the waitperson asks if I want my change.
I say, Uhhh, yeah!
I got my change.
The waitperson DID NOT get a tip.
That story is the exception, not the rule.

? said...

Word Field, this is just another attempt by greed ridden companies to pass the buck on to consumers. Pay people a decent and LIVING wage!

JudiPhilly said...

Funny you should mention this. Last night, on my way home, I stopped at our pizza place in Mt. Airy (my husband usually picks up pizza, not me). The young guy behind the counter was nice & I was in a good mood, so I decided to give him a tip, even though there was no jar. He said no tip, adding that he didn't need a tip, he was cool enough without one.

I laughed and shook my head in amazement that he refused a (generous) tip!

Anonymous said...

History tells us that many service employees were AfAms and didn't 'deserve' minimum wage. Social Security didn't include many occupations held by AfAms. So, my policy is that everyone but christianists gets the minimum wage. Duggars and the like can raise their whelps on whatever the neo-cons wnat to pay them.


Anonymous said...


Anonymous said...

Speaking of tips...have you check out the price for 4-7 days cruise and then it is expected to leave a tip...$1000-$1750 more than this year for 2009 (Disney cruies)....and on top of that we have to pay a $7 per day for fuel surcharge for each passenger..for a family of four it is going to be rough (max $112)...for a little family enjoyment....I guess some people would recommended stay home but I enjoy going on I guess not tipping is your choice...

field negro said...

"if they deserve it , give them the money." That's just it, IF they deserve it. They don't.

"Considering the fact that you probably make 6 figures a year, plus some nice ad revenue from this blog, you should tip people."

zack, I give more in tips at one trip to one of these joints than I get for an entire year from Google. And because of the nature of my job, I can't promote political ads., so no money there. Hey the server is free, so I am not knocking them. But trust me, I am not getting rich blogging. This is a labor of love.

As for my real gig. Hey man, I am a public servant; how much money can I make doing that?

judiphilly, I wish we had more workers like that :)

Sorry jody, you are lucky enough to live in CC. Here in the NE there just aren't that many good coffee spots.

steve-md/dc thanks for that info.

"Did you bother to ask the cashier if he or she had any hungry kids to feed at home before deciding not to give them a tip?"

Nope, I didn't care.

La♥audiobooks said...

Field, I'm not surprised others feel that same way. Another thing that bothers me...

In some places, why should I have to pay an automatic 10%-20% "tip for the chef" on my bill if I'm doing a take out? Also why are some sit down joints now putting the tip automatically on your bill? This is so wrong.

Now, I believe in giving tips, but shouldn't these things be illegal?

Anonymous said...

In some places, why should I have to pay an automatic 10%-20% "tip for the chef" on my bill if I'm doing a take out? Also why are some sit down joints now putting the tip automatically on your bill? This is so wrong.

I know seriously! I was getting take out from some organic food restaurant with a friend and they did that. We walked straight back in there and complained and they sent us off with some bullshit excuse about computers.

And to top it all off the food was horrible. Never going there again.

Frankly, if you're not serving me then you're not getting a tip. Delivery people are the exception.

Chris said...

I tip very well. However, I feel the system should be overhauled. No sense in hurting the waiters because of their bosses though.

Anonymous said...

I'll give money to the MS jar etc... but not the tip jar. I read up on your Negroe of the Day. Those pricks were wearing burkas, dressed like Muslim women. Argggg. May 72 angry Virginians assault them in the afterlife.

ZACK said...

I apologize for jumping to conclusions Mr. Field Negro, suh! I's mighty sorry bout da misunderstandin' boss man. Accept my analogy, please!

Thembi Ford said...

What I don't like about tip cups is that there usually isnt a "give a pennytake a penny" tray (which I need in my life) OR a lil charity jar if a tip cup is around.

DebC said...


I'm 100% with you on this one! Employers need to pay employees a living wage which directly reflects their value to the total profits received.

Here's a true story:

When we lived in the Keys a few years ago, my husband went to a pretty well-known sports bar/restaurant to watch a Giants' game (we didn't have "the Dish" and Comcast only played local, Dolphins' games). He got shitty service (beers and appetizers only, but she was MIA for most of the game, causing him to often go to the bar and get his own shit), so he left a shitty tip to make a point.

Normally a mild-mannered, better-than-average tipper, he left $1 on the approximately $30 bill. (hennasplace, trust me, they were lucky. I, like your family member, would have picked that $1 right up if I'd been there! I'm known for tipping over the accepted percentage if the service is good and picking up what he leaves or leaving a penny for their troubles if the service is bad! I refuse to pay for anyone to treat me like shit! It's the principle of the thing in my book. Constructive Feedback, I get the "value of services provided" to the "amount of compensation" ratio.).

Anyway, the next week, we went back down there together (it's a small town and this place was usually a great hang-out) to watch a Giants vs Redskins game (a brutal rivalry in my house!). We sat in a different station, but the young lady from the week before was also working. Game's over, we head out to the car and homegirl follows us out into the street because she recognized him. She proceeds to berate him for the shitty tip he left THE WEEK BEFORE!

She was talking cash shit about his "cheap ass" and he's right back at her about her "shitty, almost non-existent service." I'm standing there looking at her like WTF??? Then a few other white guys walk up to see what's going on (you have to live in this town to get how people are). I'm the only Black person in the bunch and I get in between them, telling her she's not "entitled" to a damn thing since tip, in my book, means "to insure proper service" and she'd not provided same.

Finally we all go our own ways, but I'm piissed. I write a letter to the owner telling him calmly what happened (my mind is like a steel-trap for details). I told him I thought this incident should be my next column the following Saturday entitled "T.I.P.S. - to insure proper service" (I had a weekly Opinion Page column in the local paper).

In a week, I get a reply in the mail. The server had been fired and we got coupons for free drinks, dinner and/or appetizers for 6 months! Since I so hate expediency in the face of what's right, I wrote the column anyway, never went back and gave the coupons to some locals who would not normally go there because the prices were so high.

As a society, we seem to keep lowering the bar for what is considered appropriate in the public realm. For some people, that's okay. For me, there's a standard of care I expect to be observed and reciprocated - particularly if I'm paying your ass! Tip cups fall way below that standard if you're only ringing up my shit (but I WILL put my change in the "take a penny, leave a penny tray by the register.)

Hey Field, can I nominate someone for the Field Negro/Honorary Field Negro of the Day sidebar? I saw this on 60 Minutes Sunday night and I think D.A. Watkins deserves your FNOTD nod and an Honorary FNOTD nod to The Innocence Project. Here's my post on the story. Follow the links to the videos - good stuff!:

Anonymous said...

"Here is something that these owners might want to consider: pay these folks a decent wage and lose the damn tip cups."

Then Field, you have to tell the owner this. Either to his face, or a letter to management, or one of your eloquent Op Eds in the paper of your choice.

You're an attorney. You know how to write. You have clout. And, to paraphrase Orwell, you have more clout than others b/c you have a bad*ass blog.

Plus, I know you know this is emblematic of the labor rights mess this country is in as a result of the last couple of C-Club Administrations letting corporations run riot over people generally.

Don't let your populist voice go to waste. You know ol' boy/girl wouldn't be giving you Stank Face if s/he were making a decent hourly.

(Although some folks will always find something to SourFace about, but that is not the focus of this post. Carry on.)

Constructive Feedback said...

[quote]Employers need to pay employees a living wage which directly reflects their value to the total profits received. [/quote]

deb - (sorry Deacon Blue for me having the nerve to talk to other posters on Field Negro's blog without getting YOUR permission)

This point made by you doesn't make much business sense to a company seeking to keep its doors open in the long run.

Let's get beyond the politically correct label of "the living wage" and make note that it is pure and simple MORE MONEY paid to the employee so that he can pay his bills at home. Why must this increase in money taken home be done under the auspices of "a living wage" movement? I assume that the government is involved in the middle of this - making some type of mandate. Again I can't help but to note that many of you acting as CONSUMERS are not willing to pay a worker a tip just because there is a cup on the counter and they did nothing to earn it. For some strange reason when you take the same argument to the EMPLOYER/EMPLOYEE relationship you lose the same train of logic and expect the employee to pay the employee a wage that is beyond the intrinsic value of the labor provided to the company. This is why I call employers "consumers of labor" and employees "sellers of labor services" in order to more clearly communicate the other side of the coin which all of you operate upon.

Your argument is that THE CONSUMER OF LABOR is obligated to determine the SELLER OF LABOR SERVICES' needs at home and to establish an hourly rate that is commensurate with this amount. Shouldn't the seller of labor be more in tune with what he needs at home and improve the value of what he sells so that more money can be received?

WORSE YET you then throw in the PROFIT remark.

First question Deb - of the food service establishments that go out of business - isn't the LACK OF PROFITS the main reason for this?

Worst of all think about what you are proposing! Deb has a "Deb's Coffee Shop". You put up $150,000 of your own savings to secure the lease, furnish the store, purchase the relevant equipment and advertise. Your investment allows you to be a CONSUMER OF LABOR and also a seller of goods and services to your customers.

All of the RISK is on your back! You have $150k of your own money on the line as well as several contracts with your name on it. In you argument above you are telling us that when the REVENUES come in which pays for the utilities, rent and the agreed upon salary rate for those who are selling their labor services to you. On top of that you must pay both your own salary AND restore that initial $150,000 investment that you sunk into the business to give it life in the first place back into your personal bank account. (If this were a bank loan this would not be an optional payment)

In considering your proposal you claim that you would take the remaining money and split it with the SELLERS OF LABOR despite the fact that they agreed to be paid a certain rate but more importantly they get to clock out and their burden for your business problems are tuned out of their minds? You can't be serious.

With most small businesses there is no gusher of cash rolling in. (except drug dealers) Many are barely making it until they build up a sufficient clientele. If the business does fail it is YOU left holding the bag - especially if you took out a bank loan (or worse a loan from friends/family based on your personal credit in the relationship with them) to start it up. They are not looking to the EMPLOYEES to pay this back. They are looking to YOU. The employee laid off after your store closes can go find a new job, her hands washed of the entire situation.

If you are a start up business and you tell any employee about your tenuous situation and set up an agreement up front where they receive a bonus of small shares of ownership for their attainment of certain goals - I don't have a problem with this. Certainly sharing the wealth with those who helped make it BEYOND the performance of their minimal job description is a worthy investment in the company itself. I disagree that a regular worker who is only there for a pay check and does what is necessary to get by deserves PROFIT SHARING. This is no different than the people who are against giving a TIP for the sake of there being a cup on the counter.

I have seen too many small businesses open and close primarily because they are more into their "craft" than they are knowledgeable about how to run a business and perpetuate it. It is far better to have a business that is "selfish" in the short run as it weathers the storm of the start up and to be alive to create jobs for others in the future than it is to have a "living wage" firm from the start where these expenses exceed the revenues of the business and thus we get yet another boarded up store front - as well as the owner being punished for taking the risk only to end up with hundreds of thousands of dollars of bad debt. (and then some of you will be attacking the BANK for not wanting to lend money in the area)

[flahy] [blak] [chik] said...

Yesterday I was standing in line @ Panera Bread and looked down and noticed a tip cup aimed towards a charity organization...Now, I was left to only think, how am I certain that a charity is going to get this money??

Hathor said...

When I have enough money to go to a restaurant or a cafe to buy coffee and food, I have enough money and expect to tip. When I go to a Dunkin Doughnuts, I have been know to look for change in the bottom of my car seat, just to pay for coffee. It is not a place I expect to tip. Most customers there are not high income people.

Anonymous said...

I only tip if effort is involved: bringing food to my table/car, driving to bring me food, having to accomodate allergies, etc.

I overtip the pizza guys, since around here most of them are students and need the cash. I only tip at Sonic when I order food (usually $1)because again, most of the carhops are students (but they make minimum wage).

But anywhere that I have to stand in line and bus my own table, does not give my $.

west coast story said...

I tip everybody most of the time (unless the service really sucks). I started to notice how hard some of these folks work at food and coffee establishments and know that they don't get paid very much. I make a point to tip at places where I go frequently.

I used to resent the tip cups but I got over it. Guess it's the only part of my old butt that is mellowing because everything else under the sun seems to piss me off two times.

vdubjb said...

ha, lest anyone suspect you aren't really a negro..

öblio said...

Having worked for tips as a youth, I have no problems leaving tips.

Also you gotta figure that if the employer paid a good wage, the coffee would cost a lot more.

Consider making your own coffee. Much cheaper and the quality is much better.

field negro said...

deb, thanks for that story. Way to stand up for yourself. I say that 60 minutes piece, and yes that project is FNOTD worthy. Actually, the doctor in the other piece with the clinic in Haiti impressed me even more. There are some really good people out there.

lmb, you might be right,I might need to be more proactive instead of just talking shit on mu blog. Although I thought I did enough now. But it's never enough when you find stuff to complain about.

"Also you gotta figure that if the employer paid a good wage, the coffee would cost a lot more."

Actually I did. Maybe the owner could cut HIS profit margin. I am not sure how the Dunkin Donuts franchising works, but they might want to consider cutting back on the money they pump into things like ads. and expansion. I don't think they want to end up like Starbucks. They have been losing a lot of money lately.

DebC said...


Given the fact that I live here in South Florida, the story on the doctor was relevant, real and yes, inspiring. That being said however, given the political climate in which we now find ourselves along with the brouhaha about this Black man running for president and NOT standing up for Rev. Wright or the truths of which he spoke, THIS Black man chose to stand up for what is right and true regardless, as opposed to the senator from Illinois who chooses what is politicaly expedient, I thought the D.A. story was more important to highlight.

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